No, it’s based ultimately on the Windows NT kernel which goes back in clear and unbroken succession all the way to VAX/VMS. There have been six major revisions of the NT kernel (NT versions 1 through 4, Windows 2000 aka NT 5, and Windows Vista aka NT 6). The NT 1 kernel was extremely similar to VAX/VMS (unsurprising, since both were designed by the same individual, Dave Cutler).
Windows 10, curiously enough, reports as NT version 10, but this is likely because Marketing finally won its decades-long battle with the developers over internal version numbers, and I am not yet convinced that Windows 10 actually counts as a “major release” because it appears to actually have fairly similar internals to Windows Vista/7/8/8.1 and thus doesn’t qualify as a “major release”.
There is no known substantial component of Linux anywhere in Windows. There is a big chunk of BSD code: in Windows 2000, Microsoft ripped out the terribly buggy TCP/IP stack they had in NT4 and replaced it with one cannibalized from BSD, but BSD is not Linux.
The internals of Windows and Linux are widely divergent and it would be quite difficult to make a version of Windows that was built on top of Linux. The API shim layers (there would be multiple shims, since Windows has five or six kernel APIs) would be extremely thick.
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